S swah Jan 2020 1 0 Hong Kong Jan 12, 2020 #1 How can I calculate \(\displaystyle ∑^2 \beta \) from item 2? The following equation from Kasa Method. Thank you! Last edited: Jan 12, 2020

How can I calculate \(\displaystyle ∑^2 \beta \) from item 2? The following equation from Kasa Method. Thank you!

M Maschke Aug 2012 2,464 761 Jan 12, 2020 #2 What are $\Sigma_\delta$ and all the rest of these symbols? Is there more context to this problem? Oh I see they're defined in 1. But what is the context of this problem?

What are $\Sigma_\delta$ and all the rest of these symbols? Is there more context to this problem? Oh I see they're defined in 1. But what is the context of this problem?