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 Elementary Math Fractions, Percentages, Word Problems, Equations, Inequations, Factorization, Expansion

 November 16th, 2018, 11:59 AM #1 Senior Member   Joined: Dec 2015 From: somewhere Posts: 600 Thanks: 88 Divisibility rule If 3 divides $\displaystyle n$ for $\displaystyle n \in N$ Show that the sum of digits of $\displaystyle n$ must be divisible by 3 Last edited by idontknow; November 16th, 2018 at 12:01 PM. November 16th, 2018, 12:11 PM   #2
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 Originally Posted by idontknow If 3 divides $\displaystyle n$ for $\displaystyle n \in N$ Show that the sum of digits of $\displaystyle n$ must be divisible by 3
This definitely calls out for a round of, "Show us what you've done so far." November 17th, 2018, 02:14 AM #3 Global Moderator   Joined: Dec 2006 Posts: 20,933 Thanks: 2207 Consider the numerical difference between an integer and the sum of its digits. November 17th, 2018, 02:31 AM #4 Senior Member   Joined: Dec 2015 From: somewhere Posts: 600 Thanks: 88 Im not sure about this way , but the result works First express $\displaystyle n$ as powers of $\displaystyle 10$ , example: $\displaystyle 273=10^2 \cdot 2 +10^1 \cdot 7 +10^0 \cdot 3$ Let $\displaystyle x_1,x_2,...,x_k$ be the digits of $\displaystyle n$ $\displaystyle n=10^{k-1}x_k + 10^{k-2}x_{k-1} + ...+10x_2+x_1=(10^{k-1}-1)x_k +x_k+(10^{k-2}-1)x_{k-1} + x_{k-1} +...+9x_2 + x_2 +x_1$ $\displaystyle 10^p -1$ is a multiple of $\displaystyle 9$, so write $\displaystyle 10^p -1=9a$ $\displaystyle n=9a_k x_k +x_k +9a_{k-1}x_{k-1}+x_{k-1} +...+9x_2 +x_2 +x_1$ $\displaystyle n=9(a_k x_k +a_{k-1}x_{k-1}+...+x_2)+(x_1+x_2+...+x_k)$ $\displaystyle 3|9(a_k x_k +a_{k-1}x_{k-1}+...+x_2)$ but also $\displaystyle 3$ must divide the other part of the sum (if 3|p and 3|q , then 3|(p+q)) so $\displaystyle 3|(x_1+x_2+...+x_k)$ November 17th, 2018, 05:21 AM #5 Senior Member   Joined: May 2016 From: USA Posts: 1,310 Thanks: 551 It is hard to comment on proofs because we do not know what axioms and theorems you have available and what conventions of presentation you should follow. But the basic thought behind your proof looks sound to me. November 17th, 2018, 02:11 PM #6 Senior Member   Joined: May 2016 From: USA Posts: 1,310 Thanks: 551 I keep thinking that this argument would be much clearer with better notation. Given $m,\ n \in \mathbb Z.$ $m > 0.$ $10^{(m- 1)} < n < 10^ m.$ $3\ |\ n \implies \exists \ a \in \mathbb Z \text { such that } 3a = n.$ $k \in \mathbb Z \text { and } 1 \le k \le m.$ $\text {Define } d_k \text { such that } d_k \in \mathbb Z,\ 0 \le d_k \le 9, \text { and } \displaystyle \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m d_k * 10^{(k-1)} \right ) = n.$ $\text {Let } p = \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^m d_k.$ $\text {Prove } 3 \ | \ p.$ $\text {Let } x_k = d_k * 10^{(k-1)} - d_k \implies x_k \in \mathbb Z \ \because d_k \in \mathbb Z.$ $\text {Also } x_k + d_k = d_k * 10^{(k-1)}.$ $\text { Let } q = \displaystyle \sum_{k=1}^m x_k \implies q \in \mathbb Z \ \because x_k \in \mathbb Z.$ $n = \displaystyle \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m d_k * 10^{(k-1)} \right ) = \left ( \sum_{k= 1}^ m d_k + x_k \right ) = \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m d_k \right ) + \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m x_k \right ) = p + q \implies$ $p = n - q = 3a - q.$ $x_k = d_k * 10^{(k-1)} - d_k = d_k(10^{(k-1)} - 1).$ We now apply the following theorem. $\alpha \in \mathbb Z \text { such that } \alpha \ge 1 \implies \exists \ \beta \in \mathbb Z \text { such that } 9\beta = 10^{(\alpha -1)} - 1.$ $\therefore \exists \ y_k \in \mathbb Z \text { such that } 9y_k = 10^{(k-1)} - 1.$ $\therefore x_k = 9d_ky_k.$ $\therefore q = \displaystyle \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m 9d_ky_k \right ) = 9 * \left ( \sum_{k=1}^m d_ky_k \right ).$ $\text {Let } r = \displaystyle \left ( \sum_{k= 1}^m d_ky_k \right ) \in \mathbb Z \ \because \ d_k, \ y_k \in \mathbb Z.$ $\therefore q = 9r \implies p = 3a - 9r = 3(a - 3r) \implies$ $3 \ | \ p \ \because \ a,\ r \in \mathbb Z.$ Tags divisibility, rule Thread Tools Show Printable Version Email this Page Display Modes Linear Mode Switch to Hybrid Mode Switch to Threaded Mode Similar Threads Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post Dacu Algebra 1 November 24th, 2014 08:42 PM soulrain Applied Math 12 July 2nd, 2012 01:40 PM Peter1107 Calculus 1 September 8th, 2011 10:25 AM manich44 Algebra 3 February 17th, 2010 09:23 AM mt055 Calculus 3 October 29th, 2009 10:58 PM

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