My Math Forum Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Question
 User Name Remember Me? Password

 Calculus Calculus Math Forum

 June 12th, 2015, 03:24 PM #1 Member   Joined: Sep 2013 Posts: 58 Thanks: 0 Fundamental Theorem of Calculus Question I am preparing for an exam and was looking at a past exam problem. I was really stuck on this question. Can anyone elaborate where the integrand x^2 came from? As well as the limits of integration of 0 and 1, or what this whole 1/N Riemann's sum means in relation to the right-hand rule in general. I have no idea where to start. Thanks, Tzad Last edited by skipjack; June 12th, 2015 at 04:52 PM.
 June 12th, 2015, 04:20 PM #2 Math Team   Joined: Jan 2015 From: Alabama Posts: 3,264 Thanks: 902 In the Riemann sum definition of the integral we start by dividing the interval of integration (here from 0 to 1) into N subintervals. One can show that the subintervals don't have to be all the same length, but that is can be done and is simplest. Taking the subintervals to be the same length, each will have length 1/N. We then choose a single point, $\displaystyle x_i$, in each interval and find the area of the rectangle with base 1/N and height $\displaystyle f(x_i)$. If we choose that point to always be the right endpoint of the interval, it will be $\displaystyle x_i= \frac{i}{N}$ so the height of that rectangle will be $\displaystyle \left(\frac{I}{N}\right)$ which, here, is $\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$. The area of a rectangle with base $\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}$ and height $\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$ is $\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}\frac{i^2}{N^2}$. The total area of all those rectangles is the sum $\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^N \frac{i^2}{N^2}$. That sum could be written as $\displaystyle \frac{1}{N^3}\sum_{i= 0}^N i^2$ but I assume they did not do that in order to make it clear that the "$\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$" term is the "$\displaystyle x^2$" term. By the way, You could also do that problem "the other way around", using the fact that $\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^n i^2= n(2n-1)(n- 2)$. Then the sum $\displaystyle \frac{1}{N^3}\sum_{i=1}^N i^2= \frac{1}{N^3}N(2N- 1)(n- N)= \frac{2N^3+ 6N^2+ N}{6N^3}= \frac{1}{3}+ \frac{1}{n^2}+ \frac{6}{N^2}$ which goes to $\displaystyle \frac{1}{3}$ as N goes to infinity. Thanks from greg1313 Last edited by Country Boy; June 12th, 2015 at 04:26 PM.
 June 12th, 2015, 04:29 PM #3 Math Team   Joined: Nov 2014 From: Australia Posts: 689 Thanks: 244 Do you know the definition of a Reimann Sum? Let $P = \{x_0,\,x_1,\,x_2,\,...,\,x_n\}$ (where $x_0 < x_1 June 12th, 2015, 05:07 PM #4 Member Joined: Sep 2013 Posts: 58 Thanks: 0 Quote:  Originally Posted by Country Boy In the Riemann sum definition of the integral we start by dividing the interval of integration (here from 0 to 1) into N subintervals. One can show that the subintervals don't have to be all the same length, but that is can be done and is simplest. Taking the subintervals to be the same length, each will have length 1/N. We then choose a single point,$\displaystyle x_i$, in each interval and find the area of the rectangle with base 1/N and height$\displaystyle f(x_i)$. If we choose that point to always be the right endpoint of the interval, it will be$\displaystyle x_i= \frac{i}{N}$so the height of that rectangle will be$\displaystyle \left(\frac{I}{N}\right)$which, here, is$\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$. The area of a rectangle with base$\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}$and height$\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$is$\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}\frac{i^2}{N^2}$. The total area of all those rectangles is the sum$\displaystyle \frac{1}{N}\sum_{i=1}^N \frac{i^2}{N^2}$. That sum could be written as$\displaystyle \frac{1}{N^3}\sum_{i= 0}^N i^2$but I assume they did not do that in order to make it clear that the "$\displaystyle \frac{i^2}{N^2}$" term is the "$\displaystyle x^2$" term. By the way, You could also do that problem "the other way around", using the fact that$\displaystyle \sum_{i=1}^n i^2= n(2n-1)(n- 2)$. Then the sum$\displaystyle \frac{1}{N^3}\sum_{i=1}^N i^2= \frac{1}{N^3}N(2N- 1)(n- N)= \frac{2N^3+ 6N^2+ N}{6N^3}= \frac{1}{3}+ \frac{1}{n^2}+ \frac{6}{N^2}$which goes to$\displaystyle \frac{1}{3}$as N goes to infinity. Hey, Thanks for the response, I have a couple of questions. 1. I understand that I'm breaking up the function so that each base is 1/N, I also understand that the height is f(xi). When you say the right point will be xi=i/N, are you saying that's its area? Also, I kind of lost you after you said the height of the rectangle is I/N. I don't see how you got that. 2. I also know in an ordinary Reimman's sum, the 1/N (Or Delta X) is on the right side of the f(xi). Can we rearrange this equation so that it is like that? Or is that wrong? 3. I have no idea what you mean about looking at the problem from "the other way around". It seems really cool and I'd like to know more if you can elobarate on how ∑i^2=n(2n−1)(n−2) Thanks, Tzad June 12th, 2015, 05:11 PM #5 Member Joined: Sep 2013 Posts: 58 Thanks: 0 Quote:  Originally Posted by Azzajazz Do you know the definition of a Reimann Sum? Let$P = \{x_0,\,x_1,\,x_2,\,...,\,x_n\}$(where$x_0 < x_1
Great explanation, the only problem I'm having is understanding why, $x_0 = x_1 - \dfrac{1}{N} = \dfrac{1}{N} - \dfrac{1}{N} = 0$. And how that translates to $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\,R = \int_0^1x^2\,dx$$

Thanks,

Last edited by Tzad; June 12th, 2015 at 05:18 PM.

June 12th, 2015, 06:14 PM   #6
Math Team

Joined: Nov 2014
From: Australia

Posts: 689
Thanks: 244

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Tzad ... the only problem I'm having is understanding why, $x_0 = x_1 - \dfrac{1}{N} = \dfrac{1}{N} - \dfrac{1}{N} = 0$
I got this from $x_i - x_{i - 1} = \dfrac{1}{N}$ and $x_i = \dfrac{i}{N}$(which is wrong in my original post... ooops) so $x_1 - x_0 = \dfrac{1}{N}$, or $x_0 = x_1 - \dfrac{1}{N} = \dfrac{1}{N} - \dfrac{1}{N} = 0$.

Quote:
 Originally Posted by Tzad And how that translates to $$\lim_{n\to\infty}\,R = \int_0^1x^2\,dx$$
If you look at my first post, you'll see the line that says
$$\lim_{n\to\infty}\,R = \int_{x_0}^{x_n}f(x)\,dx$$
In your case, $x_0 = 0$, $x_n = 1$ and $f(x) = x^2$.

 Tags calculus, fundamental, fundemental, question, theorem, therum

 Thread Tools Display Modes Linear Mode

 Similar Threads Thread Thread Starter Forum Replies Last Post bonildo Calculus 2 September 11th, 2014 10:00 AM Mr Davis 97 Calculus 6 June 5th, 2014 02:29 PM layd33foxx Calculus 3 December 12th, 2011 07:32 PM riotsandravess Calculus 3 November 25th, 2010 12:44 PM Aurica Calculus 1 June 10th, 2009 05:39 PM

 Contact - Home - Forums - Cryptocurrency Forum - Top