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Grading on a CurveThis question involves potential ways to curve a quiz grade as well as the overall question, should I? I'm interested in your input. The background info: I teach a graduate level class on partnership taxation. My students have disappointed me this semester a little bit... On the most recent quiz, the average score was a 69.7%. One person aced the quiz. These are open book quizzes that are not timed where the students can save the quiz and return to it, ask me questions if they aren't understanding any of the material, etc. They have every opportunity in the world to ace them. I only included questions addressed by the text, but in upcoming courses they won't receive that luxury as at this level they are supposed to be able to look up the Tax Code and Federal Regulations for answers too if not court cases and other guidance. Further, I quiz on general principles for the most part as opposed to really making them dig for specifics. I hope you can understand my reluctance when it comes to giving them a free boost in their grades. Each question was worth between 2 and 4 points with a total possible of 25 points. Of the 8 questions on the quiz, the average success rate (percentage) was: Q1, 3 pts: 71.43 Q2, 2 pts: 78.58 Q3, 3 pts: 85.72 Q4, 4 pts: 92.86 Q5, 3 pts: 92.86 Q6, 4 pts: 14.29 (comprehensive, more difficult question) Q7, 3 Pts: 78.58 Q8, 3 Pts: 57.15 (oddly enough, not a difficult question I'd expect undergrads to get) Here are the descriptive stats out of Excel with respect to their overall grades: Mean 17.42857143 Standard Error 1.333071665 Median 18 Mode 21 Standard Deviation 4.987897441 Sample Variance 24.87912088 Kurtosis 0.089678713 Skewness -0.765811252 Range 18 Minimum 7 Maximum 25 Sum 244 Count 14 Confidence Level(95.0%) 2.879926241 Here are the students' overall scores out of 25: 16 21 25 12 18 21 18 21 15 21 7 21 10 18 With one person having aced the quiz, I'm not sure how to incorporate any curve... Any suggestions? |

One has to wonder whether those who didn't get even half of the available points were just guessing their answers, especially the student who got only 7 points. |

This is just one quiz? What is its overall weighting for the unit? I don't see why you would need to boost them at all.. Especially if it is open book without time limit etc. as you have stated. |

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Hofstra Law School require course grades to be curved with a mean of about 3. The grade distributions must be close to: A or A+: 8% A-: 14% B+: 26% B: 19% B-: 13% C+: 7% C: 6% C-: 5% D+ or D: 2% |

I had a very good friend who was an adjunct professor at a law school. He got let ago for not grading second and third year students generously enough. (He was a hard ass: he had put himself through law school working at a blast furnace in a steel mill at night.) So I get your plight. Here are my thoughts. Grade this quiz straight for now. See how the students do overall by end of term. If you still want to make adjustments then, come back with the stats and ask for advice. At this point, I'd be giving incentives for people to pay attention. I've worked with tax accountants and tax attorneys quite a bit. You give rotten advice, and clients are not happy, and bad things can happen to the firm. |

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I am sure that some other students were guessing at some point too. I try to make each potential answer seem plausible, so on some questions ruling out a couple of choices is not really possible unless you know the material. There are quite a few aspects of partnership taxation that are not obvious. |

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The material itself isn't rocket science, but we do have a lot to cover. What is difficult for these students is if I pose questions that they have to research an answer for. They are still developing their ability to research despite the expectation that they are able to at least look up and cite the Code and Regulations. That is why I generally quiz on principles instead of having them dig for specifics at this point. Everything is addressed by the text in some form when it comes to the quizzes, whereas in their discussions and papers I require proper citations and reward them more for researching. |

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You're quite right in that, when we screw up, people sometimes can really be hurt by it. Thankfully we're not surgeons in that regard, but still, it hurts with respect to peoples' pocketbooks and also in terms of stress and time lost. I recently published a paper in TAXPRO Journal where I advocated for regulating paid tax preparers. To quote myself, when it comes to your average chain outlet, "preparers only correctly prepare [relatively simple returns free of legal ambiguity] somewhere between 19.68% and 37.19% of the time." That stat is computed with 95% confidence using the conventional formula for an interval estimate of a population proportion given the limited sample I had to work with of 102 tested returns. Still, that's really bleak. Tax pros certainly are not all created equal and their services are not a commodity. To that end, I want to be a bit of a hard ass but I'm really not. On the quizzes, my hands are tied because their score is what it is absent a curve. On their papers and discussions there is more room for subjective grading. You know what the scary part of this is though?... Most of my students are themselves seasoned tax professionals. When I went through the Masters program, I had already been working for about a decade. I got a 4.0 and often times 100% throughout entire courses because I didn't need to relearn it. I already knew it. That's what I'd expect from anyone holding themselves out as a tax professional.Anyways, sorry for the bit of a rant, but one more question please. Assuming I did want to curve a quiz like this, how would you suggest I go about doing it based solely on the information in the OP? |

Grade Points $\ \ \ $ A $\ \ $ 22-25 $\ \ \ $ B $\ \ $ 18-21 $\ \ \ $ C $\ \ $ 14-17 $\ \ \ $ D $\ \ $ 10-13 $\ \ \ $ E $\ \ \ \ $ 6-9 Ideally, D and E grades should be treated as unsatisfactory. |

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I can't really use the 'old-fashioned method' because the student having aced the quiz is a curve breaker. No curve would result. I could say that I want the average score to be 85% and then use the following formula to change the maximum number of points from 25 to something else (denoted $x$): $$\frac{\text{current class avg.}}{x} = \frac{\text{85}}{100}$$ The problem with the above is that my ace student would end up with 'extra credit' in contradiction to the terms of the syllabus, as would any other student with an actual score exceeding $x$. Let's say I wanted a cutoff for those getting an A and I've decided that the top 8% of grades should earn an A. I believe then that I'm left with an integral I cannot solve (that of the probability density of the normal distribution), but could otherwise approximate: $$\Pr( \,x \geq a) \, = \int_{a}^{\infty} \frac{1}{\sqrt{2\pi\sigma^2}} e^{-\frac{( \,x-\mu) \,^2}{2\sigma^2}} \, dx = 0.08$$ I'm not willing to go through some complex approximation process though. Further, after getting my approximation, I would have to convert the grades back to points because the overall grade is based on a point system. That brings me back to your suggestion. How would I convert those grades you conjured above back into points as opposed to letter grades? I have no idea how you came up with that. Ok, maybe I'm thinking about this too much, but also trying to nail down an approach I could possibly use going forward and technically even include in a syllabus (no, I won't be using Latex to create my syllabus ;) ). I was curious if anyone here had a good method. |

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